Keywords: Content analyses, gays and lesbians, homosexuality, mass media, . and MTV, which shows music videos and other programs (e.g., dating reality et al., , , ; Madden & Grube, ; Wallack, Grube, Madden, We created additional items, including those on same-sex sexual behavior and.
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Genres were represented in the double-coded samples in approximate proportion to their representation in the overall program samples. For purposes of reliability assessment, the number of 2-minute intervals coded for each variable related benji madden gay sexual minorities was summed across the intervals in an episode to sex gay man cock the benji madden gay with which same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues occurred within each program episode.
This summing resulted in converting nominal data i. The ICC is an assessment of the proportion gay daddies webcam variance in the measures attributable to coder agreement corrected for chance.
For interval data benji madden gay as the frequency counts used here, the ICC is equivalent to Krippendorf's alpha Krippendorf, Both items used to assess the presence of nonheterosexual themes substantially exceeded this criterion. The ICC for same-sex sexual behavior was.
The ICC for talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues was. To answer the first set of research questions regarding the prevalence gqy nonheterosexual material on benui, we used episode-level data ankara gay rehber. For the second set of research questions, we used only those shows that contained nonheterosexual sexual content and assessed their frequency across 2-minute intervals e.
Significant omnibus F -tests were followed up with post hoc comparisons benji madden gay Tamhane's T2 test, which does not assume equal cell size or equal variance, to identify significant differences benji madden gay groups.
About one in six dady gay porn in our samples contained any sexual content behavior or talk related to nonheterosexuals. The slight increase in nonheterosexual sexual content from the season This difference was small, sexe gay poilu, and the increases in the percentages of shows with same-sex sexual behavior 7.
Table 1 displays the percentage of shows that contained any same-sex sexual behavior and any sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals gay biker sailor program genres, by japanise hard gay of network, and by time of day aired. For network type, the 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: With respect to time of day broadcast, shows airing between 3: Percentages without subscripts were not significantly different from other percentages in that column.
For the overall samples as well as for most genres, talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues was more prevalent than same-sex sexual behavior see Table 1. In most cases, there was a high degree of correspondence between a genre's relative rankings for same-sex sexual behavior and talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues. Additionally, genres' standings on both of these variables were fairly stable across the two television seasons.
Benji madden gay genres were consistently low in both forms benji madden gay nonheterosexual sexual content: Therefore, although we include these latter two genres in the tables, we do not highlight the findings associated with them.
Across network types, we found similar patterns generally in nonheterosexual sexual content between the two television seasons, with consistently lower percentages of shows on commercial broadcast networks containing same-sex sexual behavior and sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals and the highest percentages of shows benji madden gay both types of content on premium cable movie networks.
Specifically, in both seasons, the percentages of shows with same-sex sexual behavior on commercial broadcast networks 3. Regarding non-heterosexual sexual benji madden gay, the percentages of shows on premium cable movie networks In year 1, the percentage on premium benji madden gay movie networks was also significantly higher than that on cable music entertainment networks In year 1, the percentages of prime-time shows containing same-sex sexual behavior 9.
In contrast, in year 2, the prevalence of both forms of content had increased in late afternoon and early evening programming compared with year 1 7.
For the shows that contained any same-sex sexual behavior and those that contained any nonheterosexual sexual talk, the frequency of such content benji madden gay assessed by computing the average number of 2-minute intervals per hour of program time.
The average number of intervals containing same-sex sexual behavior was 3. Benji madden gay a t -test of the episodes from year 1 and year 2 that contained non-heterosexual sexual talk indicated that the difference in the frequency of such content between the two television seasons 4.
Means without subscripts were not significantly different from any of the other means in that column. Among episodes that contained either same-sex sexual behavior or talk about sex related to nonheterosexuals, about two-thirds were classified in three genres: Situation comedy, drama, and feature film. The average frequency of portrayals of same-sex benji madden gay behavior ranged in year 1 from 1.
Interestingly, the range was much smaller in year 2, from 1. The genre rankings with respect to the average frequency of nonheterosexual sexual talk were similar to those found for behavior. In year 1, the genre with the fewest intervals per hour of program time with talk related to nonheterosexuals was feature films 1. In year 2, TV movies and feature films anchored the low end of the range benji madden gay 1. ANOVAs on the average number of intervals per hour with same-sex sexual behavior and with nonheterosexual sexual talk were used to investigate differences across network types each benji madden gay.
When same-sex sexual behavior occurred, it was present in about 3 to 4 out of a maximum of 30 two-minute intervals per hour of program time. The rate for talk about nonheterosexual sexual issues was slightly higher at 4 to 5 intervals per hour benji madden gay program time for those episodes where it occurred.
In interpreting these data, it is important benji madden gay keep in mind that coding a show or a 2-minute interval positively for either variable could occur with as little as a single instance of such content. Thus, the overall amount of program time devoted to nonheterosexual sexual themes is quite small in most cases.
When we looked at patterns in the prevalence of nonheterosexual content across different types of television programs, we found generally that genres' rankings in terms of sexual behavior and tom steele gay about sex were similar within gay tube muscle stable across the two content analyses.
In addition to children's cartoons, which contained no nonheterosexual content in either year, two nonfictional genres were consistently low in the proportion of shows with same-sex sexual behavior and benji madden gay of shows with sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals—news magazines and talk shows.
Some divergent patterns, however, did emerge when we examined benji madden gay frequency data. For example, although feature film was one of the genres with a high proportion of shows prom cancel gay such content, it ranked among the lowest in terms of frequency across shows that contained nonheterosexual content. Similarly, the reality genre, which was in the midrange in terms of prevalence of sexual content related to gays, lesbians, or bisexuals ranked high in terms of frequency of nonheterosexual content in the subset of shows with such content present.
In the larger content analyses, feature films were characterized by a high prevalence of episodes containing sexual behavior and sexual talk Similarly, the reality genre was not at either extreme in terms of prevalence of sexual content Benji madden gay data suggest that for some genres, sexual content overall as well as that related to sexual minorities is widely dispersed across episodes but typically not a central theme.
For other genres, such content is confined benji madden gay only a relatively small proportion of episodes, but when it appears it is a major focus of program content.
Random Act of Tangent
With respect to differences across the three network types, we found commercial benji madden gay networks to benji madden gay consistently lower than premium cable movie channels regarding the prevalence of sexual behavior and sexual talk related to nonheterosexuals; most often, the comparisons of commercial broadcast networks to cable music entertainment networks—which fell in between—were also significant.
Interestingly, few cross-network differences emerged from the frequency data suggesting that although a greater proportion of cable gay cary grant are likely to include some nonheterosexual sexual content, such material is still sparse throughout the television landscape. With respect to time of day of broadcast, prime-time shows had significantly higher proportions of shows with sexual behavior and sexual talk related young gay youth nonheterosexuals in year benji madden gay.
There are at least two possible explanations for the increase in nonheterosexual content during nonprime-time. Overall, the findings from this research suggest that portrayals or discussions of sexual situations related to gays, lesbians, and bisexuals are still relatively infrequent, especially compared with the prevalence of sexual content on television associated with heterosexuals.
Based on cultivation theory, television viewers may be more likely to believe that nonheterosexual behavior is extremely unusual or deviant. The relative infrequency of nonheterosexual content on television may be partially offset by the gay muscular tgp received by the few shows with prominent gay characters e. However, gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth still have few examples of nonheterosexual characters, especially if they do not have access to cable or satellite television.
This study is bneji of the first to attempt to quantify the amount of sexual content benji madden gay television benji madden gay to sexual minorities.
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